Summary and conclusion of this book in English
“In the name of Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost”, is the doctrine which Christianity offers to mankind. This is the essence, the basis of Christianity which, if you do not believe in it or do not submit yourself to it you cannot be a Christian. This doctrine is one of the most important teachings of the Church. It is considered as the corner stone of the Christian theology. Thus, the doctrine of trinity teaches that God exists in three persons (hypostases), each of them is a Deity, eternal, almighty, neither greater nor smaller than the other. This statement always has been confusing the reader, whether Christian or not, who after reading such a passage always asked: how can the Father be a god, the Son a god and also the Holy Ghost a god and still we do not have three gods but One!?
Scholars of Biblical theology over centuries endeavoured to give a pleasant answer to this and many similar questions which show the rational impossibility of such a doctrine. However, each attempt in this regard has resulted more confusion and rebellion.
In order to avoid issues regarding this doctrine, Christian theologians declared the Doctrine of Trinity as “Mystery”. Cardinal John O’Conner states “we are aware that this is quite a deep mystery that we are unable to understand”. Making this doctrine a mystery, along with inabilities to understand it, made it less important among modern Christians. Today, famous theologians and historians of the doctrines state that Doctrine of Trinity has lost its central position in Christianity.
The question arises: has ever the Doctrine of Trinity been understood by mankind throughout these 2000 years? Exactly due to the paradox that this doctrine shapes, Gunton in his book “The Promise of the Trinity” states: “In the West the Doctrine of Trinity is seen more and more within the eyes of criticism… for a long time it was treated as an issue and not as the essence of the Christian Gospel”. Accurately for this reason for Pope John Paul II (the Second) this doctrine will remain forever an “unresolved mystery of the three hypostatical deity”. Statements of Pope John Paul II prove sufficiently the invalidity of this hypothesis.
Due to the importance of this doctrine in Christianity and endeavours to understand it, and then to explain it to the others, I chose to study it, always showing the truth as it will be noticed during the elaboration of the topic, based on the Holy Qur’an, Bible, and clear rationalism; under critical thinking which often is the standard measurement for all mankind.
This work is separated into three chapters:
First chapter I have entitled “HISTORY OF TRINITY” where I basically talked about the Doctrine of Trinity in other religions, its history as a doctrine and its realism according to the Christian belief.
History of Trinity
The Doctrine of Trinity in other religions
Hittites Trinity etc.
Christian Doctrine of Trinity
History of the Christian Doctrine of Trinity
Paul- the Architect of Christianity
History of Trinity in Council Nicaea
Development of Trinity in other councils, especially council of Constantinople (381 CE)
Considering Maryam/Mary as mother of God
Then the second chapter I entitled “BIBLICAL AND QURANIC VIEW OF THE DOCTRINE OF TRINITY” where I talked about the biblical and qur’anic outlook of this doctrine, mentioning all the consisting elements of this doctrine such as: the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (Spirit) elaborating each of them accordingly in accordance with the biblical and qur’anic verses.
Biblical and Qur’anic View of the Doctrine of Trinity
1. The concept of God in the Bible and the Qur’an
1.a) Oneness and attributes of God in the Bible and the Qur’an
1.b) Difference between the Bible and the Qur’an regarding attributes of God
2. Biblical and Qur’anic treatment of Jesus/ Isa a.s.
2.a) the Respect of Maryam (Mary)
2.b) the Humanness of Jesus
2.c) Is Jesus son of God?
2.d) Is Jesus God?
2.e) Difference between Jesus and God (Deity)
2.f) Jesus Prophet (Messenger) of God
2.g) Jesus sent only to one people
2.h) Miracles of Jesus
2.i) Isa presaged Muhammad’s coming
2.j) Isa was not crucified
3. Biblical and Qur’anic Treatment of Holy Ghost (Spirit)
3.a) the Concept of the Holy Ghost in the Bible
3.b) the Holy Ghost between Orthodox and Catholics
3.c) Hebrew outlook on the Holy Ghost
3.d) the Concept of the Holy Ghost in the Qur’an
3.e) Difference between the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (Spirit)
The third and the last chapter of this book I have entitled “TRINITY AND ITS VERACITY” where I looked over the verses that the Christians use to prove this doctrine. Then I discussed the opinions of different famous personalities about the Trinity and finally I brought the qur’anic viewpoint about this doctrine.
Trinity and its Veracity
1. About the verses of the Doctrine of Trinity
The Word was the Lord (John1:1)
In the name of Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (Mathew 28:29)
Who saw me, he has seen the Father (John14:8-9)
I and the Lord are one (John 10:30)
These three are one (1 John 5:7)
The Lord appeared in flesh (1 Timothy 3:16)
The Lord like unto man (Genesis 1:26)
I am in the Lord and he is in me (John 14:11)
I am (John8:58)
The Lord Jesus (Marc 16:19)
Jesus’ Obedience (Mathew 28:17)
The Only Begotten Son ( John 1:14, 3:16, 18)
Jesus is not from this world (John 8:23)
Emanuel- God is with us (Isaiah 7:14, Mathew 1:23)
Like-unto God (2 Corinthians 4:4)
2. Opinions of famous personalities about the Doctrine of Trinity
3. The Qur’anic viewpoints about the Doctrine of Trinity
I endeavoured to present the Doctrine of Trinity from the biblical and qur’anic point of view authentically and proven. I presented the Christian view firstly followed by the Islamic one. This approach in fact points out the real and appropriate reflection, in the historical aspect of the chronology of the appearance of this doctrine as well as the confrontation, mistakes, and falsehood which was done to Christianity throughout the history.
During this work on the Doctrine of Trinity, through biblical and qu’ranic verses and also historical facts related to this issue, we exposed clearly that there are many facts which deny this doctrine. Also we noticed the great impact of the pagan doctrines which were jointed into the so-called Christianity.
The development of the belief on trinity was influenced by several factors. Firstly the pagan reflections were enormous during the first centuries of Christianity. Then the land where the Christian doctrines were carved was a powerful area of the pagan mythologies. As we noted throughout this thesis the trinity was well known among ancient pagan faiths and the impact of these pagan faiths on Christianity was inevitable. Thus, pagan beliefs on three hypostasis deities were well known among Romans and Babylonians, and also the pagan Greek philosophers developed mystical ideas about trinity. Therefore, we should not neglect the fact that Alexandria, in Egypt, was one of the main seats where the Christian doctrine was formed and as such it was highly influenced by the ideas of the Greek philosophers.
During this work we learnt that the Doctrine of Trinity was officialised by the Church only in the IVth century (CE) and it was not from the teachings of Jesus nor his disciples. During this research we got to know that the Doctrine of Trinity does not compile with the human logic, it is not in accordance with Jesus’ teachings since he did not preach it neither asked his people to believe it. This doctrine was joined to Christianity long time after Jesus as a result of the pagan influence. This dogma also indicates that throughout ages the Bible has been changed and Christianity got far away from the real teachings of believing in One God Alone, as Jesus preached.
Beside these political and theological developments, in the disadvantage of the real monotheistic belief, the lack of the unchanged form of Holy Scriptures has a great impact on the development of trinity. The Gospels and other writings, which later were described as the Biblical Canon, went through different changes until they got the actual form that they have today. Recent founds of the early Christian manuscripts are the best fact on how the early theological influences of different churches worked directly on changing the Bible with the purpose of setting different dogmas, which, in fact, never were preached by Jesus.
There are a lot of contradictions, errors, additions, and different things which give to the reader the impression that Bible is not the word of God. This puts in the dilemma the claim which we were told that Bible is unchangeable word of God. This issue will be proven through this work.
So this was one of the reasons why the last Prophet, Muhammad (PBUH), was sent by Allah the almighty in order to reset finally the true monotheistic belief in One God Alone and as such to not be influenced by pagan beliefs. In order to separate the truth from the falsehood the Almighty God revealed the last revelation, the Holy Qur’an, to the mankind and prevented it from all the errors and contradictions. The real monotheism as it was revealed by God is saved in the Holy Qur’an and as such it leaves no doubt to anybody about the nature of God.
The reality of this doctrine can be observed by every rational person and thus he/she can avoid the falsehood. Therefore, the right path that we should follow is very distinctive from the falsehood as Allah the Almighty states in the Holy Qur’an: “there is no compulsion in faith; the right path is distinctive from the falsehood” (Bakare, 256), whereas to the other side I would like to tell them: “Did I become your enemy because I tell you the truth?” (Galatasy 5: 16) because “They changed the truth of God into a lie and worshiped and served the creature instead of Creator, who is blessed forever” (Romans: 1: 25).
Translated into English by:
Mr. Sci. Driton Morina